Just as Arminianism is often defined by the Calvinist rebuttal in TULIP, so Pelagianism is often defined by Augustine's rebuttal to it in the 9 beliefs of the Church at the Council of Carthage:
- Death came from sin, not man's physical nature.
- Infants must be baptized to be cleansed from original sin.
- Justifying grace covers past sins and helps avoid future sins.
- The grace of Christ imparts strength and will to act out God's commandments.
- No good works can come without God's grace.
- We confess we are sinners because it is true, not from humility.
- The saints ask for forgiveness for their own sins.
- The saints also confess to be sinners because they are.
- Children dying without baptism are excluded from both the Kingdom of heaven and eternal life.
The two red items were denied starting with third generation New Light Calvinists, including the Hopkinisians Lyman Beecher and Asahel Nettleton.